This study was published in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) by looking at what how patient outcomes compare who are admitted to hospitals during the annual cardiology conferences.  It is a way to get at data that otherwise would be hard to come by.

“They noted that there was no difference in mortality from heart conditions when physicians were attending the cancer or orthopedic meetings, presumably because the oncologists and orthopedic surgeons, not cardiologists, attended those meetings and don’t care for patients with heart problems. And when the cardiologists were at their national meetings, there were no changes in mortality from nonheart conditions such as hip fractures.”

and

“”Despite often repeating the mantra “First, do no harm,” doctors have difficulty with doing less — even nothing. We find it hard to refrain from trying another drug, blood test, imaging study or surgery.”